1. Randall, J. E. (1964). Contributions to the biology of the queen conch, strombus gigas. Bulletin of Marine Science in the Gulf and Caribbean, 14(2), 246-295.
  2. Brownell, W. N., & Stevely, J. M. (1981). The biology, fisheries, and management of the queen conch, strombus gigas. Fishery Bulletin, 43(7), 1-12.
  3. Theile, S. (2001). Queen Conch fisheries and their management in the Caribbean. TRAFFIC Europe.
  4. NOAA Fisheries. (2012, March 14). Queen conch (strombus gigas). Retrieved from
  5. Catarci, C. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. (2004). World markets and industry of selected commercially-exploited aquatic species with an international conservation profile. Rome.
  6. NMFS, Office of Protected Resources. (Photographer). (2007). Queen conch range. [Print Map]. Retrieved from
  7. Wieneke, U. (Artist). (2012). Strombus gigas in kiener, 1843. [Print Drawing]. Retrieved from
  8. Corsaut, J. (Photographer). (2011). Conch sex and the male’s lengthy verge revealed. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from
  9. Turneffe Island Resort. (Photographer). (2012). Spotted eagle ray. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from
  10. OntologicalDoubt. (Photographer). (2008). A pile of conch shells. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from

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